China plastic machinery industry
However, there is still a gap between the stability of its quality and the degree of automation compared with advanced countries in the world. According to unofficial estimates, the output value of China's plastic machinery industry in 2002 was about 10 billion yuan, while the market demand in the same period was about 20 billion yuan, reflecting the huge market development space.
Analysis and comparison of three major plastic machinery
The three major categories of plastic machinery are plastic injection machines, extruders, and hollow molding machines, which account for more than 80% of the total output value of plastic machinery, and plastic injection machines account for more than half of the total of these three types of machinery. Plastic injection machines, extrusion machines, and hollow molding machines are also the most widely used machines with the largest production and sales in mainland China. These three categories together account for more than 85% of the total output value of China's plastic machinery industry. Among them, plastic injection machines account for the largest proportion of at least 50%.
Plastic injection machine equipment
Plastic injection machines are the largest variety of plastic machinery in China in terms of output and application, and they are also the main force in the export of plastic machinery. After the 1980s, the annual growth rate of plastic injection machine production in the mainland was over 20%, and processing bases in Ningbo, Zhejiang, Dongguan, and Shunde were gradually formed. However, compared with foreign countries, mainland China's products are mainly concentrated in general small and medium-sized equipment, and the production capacity of super large and precision plastic injection machines is still weak. The precision of foreign plastic injection machines can reach 0.1μm-0.6μm (ultra-precision), while most of the mainland China is currently 10μm-30μm; the gap with foreign countries in terms of mechatronics, control level, product performance and appearance very obvious.
In recent years, mainland companies have introduced advanced technology and management models through joint ventures with Taiwan and Hong Kong companies. The production of plastic injection machines has evolved from ordinary models to mainframes, all-electronic machines, hybrid machines, and special plastic injection machines. The relay is replaced with inductive components to improve the precision, stability, and reliability of the machine.
Ningpo is one of the plastic injection machine processing bases in mainland China. There are more than 100 large and small plastic injection machine manufacturers, including more than 10 foreign-funded enterprises, and hundreds of peripheral parts and accessories cooperative factories. The production and sales of plastic injection machines in Ningbo account for more than 60% of the total production and sales in mainland China. In 2002, the production and sales volume of the whole machine has reached 30,000 units, and it is expected to reach 35,000 units in 2003, accounting for about 60% of the total annual output in mainland China and about 30% of the world's total output. On the whole, the plastic injection machines produced in mainland China are mainly low-end products, but the plastic injection machine manufacturers represented by Haitian are striving to develop into the middle-end market.
In terms of application, mainland plastic injection machines are generally used to produce plastic products such as toys, stationery, daily necessities, furniture, and decoration materials. Secondly, it is mainly used in the production of large household appliances, such as refrigerators, color TVs, washing machines, air conditioners, and computer cases. This market accounts for more than 40% of the total engineering plastics in mainland China, and mainland self-made plastic injection machines occupy this market. The rate is higher.
Another important area of plastic injection machines is the production of packaging products, which are mainly used for PET preforms, plastic bottles, bottle caps, and other products. Among them, the market of special plastic injection machines for PET preforms is currently mainly imported equipment. The sales of CD, DVD, MD, and MDS data storage media are growing rapidly all over the world. Although mainland China has developed a special plastic injection machine for optical discs, it has not yet been widely used in the market.
Some special plastic injection machines, such as ceramic plastic injection machines for the production of fine ceramic components and magnetic plastic injection machines for the production of neodymium-iron-boron electronic components, have not received much attention from machinery manufacturers due to their small usage. But to further differentiate the market, the development of related special machines will be of great significance. Similarly, special plastic injection machines used to produce thin-walled or special engineering plastic products are all imported equipment in mainland China. In recent years, the demand for thin-walled products represented by mobile phone cases has been strong, and the market has great potential for development.
Judging from the geographical distribution of market sales, the current major market for plastic injection machines in Mainland China is gradually spreading from south to north. In terms of exports, plastic injection machines occupy an important position in the Chinese mainland plastic machinery export market, accounting for 60.4% of the total exports, and the foreign exchange created accounts for 74.1%.
Extrusion machine equipment
In China's plastic processing industry, almost 1/3-1/2 of plastic products are extruded. The output and sales of extrusion molding machines account for about 20-25% of plastic machinery, and the varieties of extruders account for plastic machinery varieties. 30% of the total, this proportion is still rising year by year.
At present, there are few types of extruders produced in mainland China, low speed, high energy consumption, low controllability, and unstable performance. As far as the twin-screw extruder is concerned, the products currently on the market are imitating foreign products in the 1980s, and they are poor in overall technical level, screw and barrel processing precision, performance, and appearance. Large, high-speed, high-efficiency single-screw extruders with a screw diameter of more than 300mm have not yet been developed. Due to the backward technical performance of the extruder and the monitoring technology of auxiliary machinery, the development of some production lines is relatively restricted. Such as low-foaming board production line, three-layer composite board and sheet production line, single-layer and multi-layer coating production line and non-woven production line, and other manufacturing equipment, mainland China is unable to produce on its own. Also, large-scale reinforced double-wall corrugated pipe unit, large-scale pelletizing unit, POPP, BOPA, BOPS, and BOPET film production lines are all imported. At present, the existing small pipe production lines such as foam board, composite board, and foam pipe have a big gap with foreign countries in terms of performance, control, and appearance in the design of auxiliary machinery, mainly in terms of price. Competitiveness.
There are currently more than 100 extruder manufacturers in mainland China, most of which are private or township enterprises, mainly in areas with developed plastic processing industries, such as Zhejiang, Liaoning, Shan-tung, Guangdong and other coastal areas. The total industrial output value of 124 major extrusion machine companies was RMB 3.87 billion, and coastal areas accounted for more than 70%. There are only three or four manufacturers capable of producing more than 300 extrusion units per year, and most of them can only produce low-end and old products, which are difficult to achieve economic scale. The extrusion molding equipment produced in mainland China is mainly concentrated on general small and medium-sized general machinery. Large-scale precision extrusion units are mainly imported.
The production of building materials, packaging films and containers, and daily necessities is the main application market for extruders. In recent years, various plastic pipes and plastic profiles used for plastic doors and windows in mainland China have developed rapidly, with an annual growth rate of 15%, ranking first in the world. The plastic pipe production equipment in mainland China was originally imported from abroad, and in recent years it has been self-made. Except for the production and extrusion unit for large-diameter bellows, it can meet the market demand. Similar to the plastic door and window profile market, the current annual production capacity of profiles in China is between 1.8 million to 2 million tons, and the actual production volume is about 800,000 tons. In addition to market factors, it is mainly caused by the poor quality of domestic self-made equipment.
In terms of packaging, multi-layer co-extrusion technology has developed rapidly, and it is currently used in many fields, such as the production of hollow containers, including the production of two groups of large hollow containers. The extrusion unit produced in mainland China can already be reached. Co-extrusion composite technology has also been widely used as a processing method of plastic composite films, and the production of co-extrusion composite films in Mainland China has become mature. At present, three-layer and less than three-layer co-extruded composite film in mainland China have been dominated by domestic self-made equipment, mainly producing functional composite heat-sealable substrates, heat-shrinkable films, stretch films, etc.; co-extruded films with five and more layers Production is still dominated by imported equipment.
Hollow molding equipment
The hollow molding equipment in mainland China started in the 1980s, and it lags in terms of specifications, varieties, and performance. Compared with the plastic injection machine and extrusion machine market, the current market for hollow molding equipment in mainland China is not very active. On the one hand, the production method of self-made equipment in mainland China is relatively simple; on the other hand, it has poor performance and lags in automation control and quality reliability. Therefore, manufacturers with purchasing power purchase equipment from abroad. Many hollow molding machines produced by mainland Chinese companies have inventory due to performance and specifications.
At present, the market for the production of PET bottles in Mainland China is very large, and the growth rate is very considerable. Not only are there several major PET bottle manufacturers, but many beverage companies have also invested heavily in the introduction of equipment to produce PET bottles. Mainland China spends no less than US$200 million every year for introducing advanced foreign PET bottle production equipment. In 2002, Guangzhou Tech-Long launched the first mainland-made rotary bottle blowing machine in mainland China and began to enter the field of high-speed hollow molding equipment production.
For other plastic machinery, such as calendars, thermoforming machines, stretching equipment, secondary processing equipment, etc., the production technology in mainland China is still insufficient. Besides, machines such as high-speed press forming machines, high-speed bag making machines, six-color special printing machines, and vacuum coating machines are not yet available in mainland China.
Problems facing China's plastic machinery industry
In the past ten years, China's plastic machinery industry has produced more than 100,000 sets of various plastic machinery annually, which can meet the requirements of general plastic raw material processing and plastic product processing and molding. Except for dozens of large plastic enterprise groups with advanced equipment, the vast majority of plastic processing enterprises are mainly self-made equipment in China. Due to the large-scale, high-precision, and high-speed equipment requirements, China's self-made machinery cannot meet the requirements. Therefore, the number of imported plastic machinery has also increased rapidly in recent years, with tens of thousands of various plastic machinery imported every year. In 2001, China's imports of plastic machinery reached US$1.12 billion, while exports of plastic machinery were only US$130 million. In 2002, imported plastic processing equipment was nearly 2 billion U.S. dollars, which is about twice the total output value of domestic plastic machinery in China. This shows that advanced foreign plastic machinery has obvious technical advantages in competition. For example, heat-resistant PET bottles in mainland China have almost All are produced by imported equipment; advanced film production equipment is also all imported from abroad.
There are currently about 500 major plastic machinery manufacturing companies in mainland China, most of which are located on the southeast coast, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta. Among them, those with a capital of 10 million yuan or more accounted for 23% of the total, township enterprises accounted for 34%, joint ventures accounted for 11%, and individual enterprises accounted for 4%. That is, in the plastic machinery industry, most of them are township and village enterprises, military-to-civilian or other industry conversion and part-time enterprises, small-scale joint ventures, and individual-owned enterprises. The irrational organizational structure leads to irrational product structure. Most of these companies lack technology, equipment, and management, and can only produce medium and small ordinary products, and a considerable part of these products are eliminated products.
There are not enough institutions in mainland China that specialize in plastic machinery research, especially in joint development with enterprises, and no more than 10 have achieved real results. Companies and research institutions with a certain scale of laboratories can be said to be almost zero, and the development of new products is mostly unproductive. For many years, the plastic machinery industry in Mainland China has followed the path of "introduction-imitation-manufacturing". Most companies cannot actively determine their product projects. As a result, companies follow the market completely. Once a product sells well, everyone will flock to it. on. The conical twin-screw extruder in the early 1990s made a sensation in mainland China, and low-tech, small, and medium-sized plastic injection machines have also been favored by most manufacturers. Because popular products in the market are easy to imitate, the current supply of low-level and low-performance products in the plastic machinery market in China exceeds demand, while the supply of high-level and high-performance products exceeds demand.
Many companies are always limited to plagiarism, all structures are copied, and the dimensions of key components are even measured to several decimal places. The design is passed on from generation to generation without creation and development. Small companies generally lack development technology and are considered powerful companies. Because designers spend a lot of time on repetitive drawings, coupled with backward design technology and lack of efficiency, the development cycle of a product is often long. The application of CAD and CAM in design is only valued in some enterprises, and they have not played their role widely.
Development Trend of Plastic Machinery in Mainland China
The development of the plastics machinery industry depends on the development of the plastic raw material industry and the plastic product processing industry. The development trend of plastic machinery is toward specialization, serialization, standardization, compounding, miniaturization, large-scale, personalized, and intelligent development while meeting the requirements of energy-saving, material saving, and high efficiency. The rapid growth of the mainland's building materials industry, packaging industry, electronic information industry, and automobile industry has increased the demand for plastics and also expanded the market for plastic machinery. Although the current total output value of China's plastic machinery industry accounts for less than five-thousandths of the total output value of the national machinery industry, its position in the national economy is becoming more and more important. In addition to the newly increased market demand, there are currently about one-fifth of the equipment in mainland China that should be eliminated with high energy-consuming and low-capacity equipment. The market prospects are promising. Experts predict that in the future China's plastic machinery market, the proportions of various plastic machinery will be: plastic injection machines accounted for 35%, extrusion machines accounted for about 25%, hollow molding machines accounted for about 5%, and other plastic machinery accounted for about 35 %.
In terms of plastic injection machines, due to the rapid development of plastic injection machines in the past few years, in addition to mainframes, the supply of general specifications of plastic injection machines has exceeded demand. The sales volume can be maintained at about 1/3 during the peak period, which is already very good. However, the market demand for some high-tech plastic injection machines is increasing day by day. The rapid development of injection molding technology, new technologies, and new equipment continue to appear, a high degree of computerization, automation, single machine multi-function, diversified auxiliary equipment, rapid combination, and convenient installation and maintenance will become a trend. One is the all-electric plastic injection machine, all-hydraulic precision plastic injection machine, etc., which are mainly used in the fields of electronic communication, audio, and video, home appliances, automobiles, etc. The processing conditions are relatively high, and the precision requirements of the plastic injection machine are also improved. These industries are sunrise industries, so there is a lot of room for the demand for this type of plastic machinery. The second is the rapid development of hollow plastic injection machines. This is because the stress failure of plastic parts under vibration is a big problem in the full plasticization of automobiles and other engineering applications. The combined application of multiple rubber and plastic materials plus hollow injection molding Technology can effectively improve the above-mentioned defects. The third is a new type of plastic injection machine with air-assisted and water-assisted devices and large or super large plastic injection machines. This type of technology has a large market recently, especially for products with higher appearance requirements and longer service life, such as home appliances, automobiles, and construction.
In terms of extrusion machines, large-scale and sophisticated extrusion equipment is the focus of development. For example, the large-scale extrusion unit is one of the three key equipment supporting the ethylene project, and mainland China has long relied on imports. It is also a general trend to reduce the special accessories on the extruder and improve the modularization of equipment production. Modular production can not only shorten the development cycle of new products, but also facilitate the global procurement of various system module components of the equipment, which is very beneficial to ensure the quality of the whole machine, reduce costs, and accelerate capital turnover. Due to the continuous expansion of the application range and technological breakthroughs, the extruder market can maintain a small growth overall. However, it is inevitable that the price of the self-made extruder market in mainland China has fallen sharply. The crude manufacturing and price wars affect the overall image of plastic machinery in mainland China. And market competitiveness.
Mainland China’s self-made mainframes are now basically dominated by conical twin-screw extruders and single-screw extruders. The technology is relatively mature and the market has the largest sales volume. However, the supply of such general-purpose products has exceeded demand and can only maintain the peak market. About 50%-60%. In the future, the market for the main engine and production line of the extrusion machine will develop in the direction of improving the technical level and reducing the price. The focus of the main engine in the future is to develop parallel counter-rotating twin-screw extruders, which are suitable for forming extrusions with large extrusions. Parallel and co-rotating twin-screw extruders are developing in the direction of the sixth and seventh generations of high speed and large aspect ratio. The development direction of a single screw extruder is a large diameter, large aspect ratio, and smooth exhaust. In fact, the single-screw extruder is a low-energy, low-cost model, which can basically achieve the performance of twin-screw extrusion. For example, most of the plastic extruders used in the United States are single-screw, gradually replacing the double-screw extruder. Screw extruder.
In terms of hollow molding equipment, the automation level of equipment in mainland China is generally still insufficient, and the stability still needs to be strengthened. The price of hollow molding equipment is low (about 1/3-1/2 of injection molding), low energy consumption (in injection molding, the pressure in the mold cavity is 15-140MPa, while the inflation pressure of the parison during hollow molding Generally lower than 1MPa), strong adaptability (a moldable structure is complex, double-walled products), it makes up for the insufficiency of injection molding processing methods, hollow molded industrial products are more integrated, its products have good comprehensive performance and high added value, low cost. Therefore, although the hollow molding rubber machinery currently accounts for the lowest proportion of the three major plastic machinery, it is expected to grow strongly in the future and is the model with the most development potential.
Other plastic auxiliary types of machinery such as mixers, grinders, feeders, heaters, and other auxiliary equipment are also an important part of the plastic production line, which directly affects the product quality and production efficiency of products. At present, there are a large number of machinery manufacturers in mainland China, but the variety The specifications are basically the same, and technically it is difficult to compete with imported machinery. Most imported plastic production lines are equipped with the above-mentioned auxiliary machinery when they are introduced. Therefore, the domestic-made auxiliary machinery market in China is highly competitive. The recent development direction of such products is to have functions such as ultra-fine grinding, vacuum filtration, large-scale low-noise, and high-speed grinding.
In the long-term plan of China's plastics industry, the average annual growth rate of plastic products from 2000 to 2005 is about 10%, and the average annual growth rate from 2006 to 2015 will reach 8%. That is, the output of plastic products will reach 25 million tons in 2005, and the total output of plastic products will double to 50 million tons in 2015. The development prospects of the plastics processing industry are still opportunities for the development of the plastics machinery industry. It is estimated that from 2001 to 2010, the average annual growth rate of China's demand for plastics machinery is about 6%, and it is estimated to be RMB 14.5 billion by 2010. The plastic machinery market in China has great potential for development, especially some models with high technical level, good performance and relatively moderate price, such as super-large, precise, special plastic injection machines, low temperature, high power single screw extruders, It has good development prospects for the production of multi-layer co-extrusion hollow molding machines for packaging materials with high permeability and heat resistance, and hollow molding machines for the production of industrial products (auto parts, etc.).