At present, bioplastics production capacity accounts for less than 1% of global plastics production capacity, and the main application market focuses on food packaging (soft + hard), accounting for about 60%. With the rising logistics demand for online shopping, the development of green packaging materials is more urgent. China is a major global supplier of 3C product manufacturing and production. In response to the EPEAT label requirements and marine plastic waste pollution, it is urgent to develop biomass / degradable disposable packaging materials.
Global packaging materials market
According to the Smithers Pira survey, the global packaging market reached US $ 851 billion in 2017 and continues to grow in response to the demand for food and logistics packaging. It is predicted to reach US $ 980 billion in 2022. Figure 1 illustrates the share of the global packaging application market, with beverages and food accounting for nearly 70%, followed by consumer products. The Asian region is the world's largest and fastest-growing packaging market, driven by population growth, economic development and changes in traditional shopping habits in China and India, especially in the food sector. It is predicted that by 2022, China will account for nearly 48.0% of world packaging consumption, while India will account for 8.5%. Packaging materials can be divided into four categories: plastic, metal, glass, and cardboard. Figure 3 illustrates the proportion of various materials. According to the ALL4PACK exhibition in Paris, the future development trend of packaging materials will be toward green sustainable packaging and intelligent packaging, as shown in Figure 4.
Global Biomass Market
Global plastic production exceeds 450 million tons, 40% of which is disposable packaging. The average life of these packaging materials is less than six months. Once discarded, they will break into plastic fragments in the environment and continue Survive for hundreds of years. According to research, about 8 to 13 million tons of plastics flow into the global marine environment every year. The recent report of the United Nations Environment Program estimates that this will cause 13 billion US dollars of damage to the global ocean every year. The pollution of plastic waste to the ocean and the environment has become Following the climate change, humanity's second biggest threat. In 2018, the global bioplastics production capacity was 2.11 million tons, of which the ratio of biodegradable bioplastics to bio-non-decomposable bioplastics was approximately 43:57, Bio-PET production capacity accounted for 26.6%, ranking second, and Starch Blends accounted for 18.2%, followed by Bio-PA and PLA. Europe is the world's largest market for bioplastics (Bioplastics), and its related technology and R & D capabilities rank first in the world. Asia has the advantages of land and materials, and has become the main hub of bioplastic production.
International Biomass Packaging Development Trend
Green sustainable packaging (More Sustainable Packaging) has become the main development direction of global multinational packaging suppliers. International packaging materials factories have developed strategic green packaging materials through strategic alliances and cooperation. Amcor, Mondi, Stora Enso, and Sealed Air are major global suppliers of packaging materials. Australia's Amcor (Amcor) mainly produces flexible packaging and rigid containers for food and beverage products. The company has long been engaged in the development of bio-green sustainable packaging materials. Its designed vegetable and fruit bio-packs won the Bioplastics Award 2008. The main products of Mondi in Austria are plastics, paper packaging materials and printing. The renewable resource packaging materials developed by starch, cellulose and vegetable oils were awarded Bioplastics Award 2016. Finland ’s Stora Enso (Stora Enso) is the world ’s largest paper industry. In recent years, it has stepped into fields such as smart packaging, gas barrier films, and biomass composite materials. Sealed Air in the United States is mainly engaged in food packaging materials and foam buffer packaging materials. The company has invested considerable energy in the development of PLA foam materials. The output value of China's plastic packaging products reached NT $ 150.2 billion, accounting for about 60% of the total output value of the plastics industry. Among them, food packaging is mainly domestic sales, with a proportion of more than 70%. The overall industrial chain ranges from upstream plastic materials to midstream packaging manufacturing And application, the division of labor is fine and quite complete.
Coca-Cola launched the 30% Bio-PET Bottle in 2009, which has been used in 40 countries and has exceeded 40 billion bottles. It has been estimated that it has saved more than 315,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent annual emissions since its launch. In 2012, Coca-Cola, Heinz Foods, Nike, Ford and P & G (Baoqiao) established the Plant PET Technology Collaborative (PTC) alliance, dedicated to the development and application of 100% Bio-PET, a sustainable plastic material made from plants . In April 2014, Far East New Century successfully cooperated with Coca-Cola to develop the world's first 100% Bio-PET bottle, but domestic beverage packaging manufacturers have not followed up. It is estimated that Bio-PET will further promote the demand for biomass plastic beverage packaging, and its proportion in bioplastics will grow from 27% in 2018 to 43% in 2022.
At the 251st National Conference and Exhibition held by the American Chemical Society (ACS) in March 2016, the University of Alabama, USA published the research results of eggshell nanoparticles reinforced bioplastics. At present, most of the compostable and biodegradable materials in the packaging industry lack the strength and ductility required for packaging materials. Eggshells were chosen as reinforcing agents, partly because they are porous and lightweight, and the main component is calcium carbonate, a natural compound that tends to decline. In laboratory studies, a small portion of the particles were injected into a 70/30 mixture of PBAT and PLA. The researchers found that this addition made the mixture more flexible than other bioplastic mixtures. This flexibility can be used in retail packaging, grocery bags and food containers including egg cartons. In addition to bioplastic applications, the team is investigating the use of eggshell nanoparticles to enhance wound healing, bone regeneration, and drug delivery.
ITRI Green Packaging Material Application Technology
The global biomass plastics production capacity has exceeded 2 million tons, of which nearly 60% are used in packaging materials. The annual consumption of PLA in China is 18,070 tons, which is mainly used in food packaging, such as fresh food boxes, cold drink cups, egg boxes, tableware and other exports accounted for 70%. Biomass plastics can be developed in heat-resistant / frozen foods if they can be given gas barrier, antistatic, antibacterial, lightweight, thermal insulation, low temperature toughness, heat resistance, impact resistance / buffering, transparency and other functions to enhance their value , Electronics and medical packaging and other new markets.
The Biomass R&D team of the Institute of Materials Science and Technology of the Industrial Technology Research Institute successfully developed bio-polyester packaging materials with antistatic function through the bio-polyester nanostructure and high-concentration bio-conductive masterbatch technology, which can be used for anti-static packaging of electronic products Film / bag. Completed the preparation of 10 ~ 30% high-concentration biomass conductive masterbatch (surface resistance <104 Ω / sq) and the technology of anti-static nanobiofilm / bag (surface resistance 107 ~ 109 Ω / sq) etc.